PROCEDURAL AND DISTRIBUTIVE JUSTICE: EMPLOYEE JOB SATISFACTION
Employee’s dealings on the basis of justice and equality matter for the working performance. Productive capacity builds these practices and procedural are associated with different aspects of the job. Therefore employee’s working performance on the basis of procedural justices and distributive justice are important for the employee’s satisfaction.
Organizations are planned to operational towards desired targets and composed of different resources to face the certain and uncertain challenges and manage them in manageable ways. Resources are composed in different formats one of strategic resource is the HR that requires dynamic approaches to manage all the tasks and HR operations. To provide opportunistic and learning oriented tasks it is very important to bring in to application the role of justice.
Justice that ensures the merit based practice and provides to everyone employer and employees what they deserve. Working practices on such principles promote Employee’s dissatisfaction with their job gives rise to many serious problems for the organization. Dissatisfied employees often involves in counter-productive behaviors such as theft, poor service, destructive rumors and sabotage of equipment (Spector, 1997). It has also been found that when employees are not satisfied, they report physical disturbances such as tension, depression, lassitude, apprehension and sleeplessness (Frese, M., (1985; Spector (1997).
Dissatisfied employees also complain of stiffness in muscles and joints (O’Driscoll&Beehr, 1994). High turnover is always very destructive for the organizational. Organizations spend a lot of money on selection, recruitment; induction and training of new employees (Staw, 1980).Cost of learning, reduced morale, pressure on the existing employees and the loss of social capital are also associated with high turnover rate Des & Shaw (2001). The cost of each quit is $1400 to $4000 (Hogan, 1992). Each employee turnover costs the organization $3000 to $10000 in the form of lost productivity, lost sales and management’s time (Catherine, 2002).
Organizational justice refers to the overall fairness of the organization reward system and the perceived fairness of the actions of individuals responsible for implementing the rewards allocation system (Cropanzano and Greenberg, 1997). According to Niehoff and Moorman (1993) Distributive justice is the degree to which rewards are allocated in an equitable manner. Procedural justice is the degree to which those affected by allocation decisions perceive them to have been made according to fair methods and guidelines (Folger&Konovsky, 1989, and Greenberg, 1990). Locke and Lathan (1976) define job satisfaction as pleasurable or positive emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one’s job or job experience.
Many studies conducted have found that both distributive justice and procedural justice are strong predictors of job satisfaction. For instance, McFarlin and Sweeney (1992) in their article titled “Distributive and procedural justice as predictors of satisfaction with personal and organizational outcomes” found that distributive justice and procedural justice were the powerful predictor of job satisfaction. Masterson et al (2000) also found that distributive justice, procedural justice and interactional justice were positively correlated with job satisfaction. According to (Griffeth 1995 and Griffeth et al. 2000) it is found that organizational justice at workplace promotes the working condition and found in positive correlation with job satisfaction and employees retention. Therefore it should be bring into application at the workplace for the better position and better results.
According to Beugre (2002) that role of organizational justice promotes social security in form of social justice comparatively in good than the external environment. The workplaces where the organizational justice exists are found to be secured and working places. Organization justices promote the distributive and procedural justices and these types justices are found supportive to retain and promote employee for the longer periods of time.
Therefore the final outcome associated with the organizational justice is positive in uplifting the overall productive strengths and growth towards the better future and resources.
The research work of Bowen et, al (1999) found additive for the application of the organizational justice it is more found that organizational justice requires to be considered by the Employment Equity Act. The provision of this statement is found important with reason that law defines properly the role of justice at the organizational level. The other thing found important with the help of this research that organizational justices provide merit based career development, recruitment and compensation for the mutual welfare of the organization and employees. According to the research findings of Locke et, al (2004) documented the role of organizational justice at the managerial level significant and contributive to promote the working efficiency of the organization on the basis of the employee’s performance.
Organizational justice found relatively significant and effective to ensure the working capabilities on the basis of justice and equity. Research study proved that working efficiencies in those organizations where the productive activities are on the basis of the justices and equity. The organization they are practicing organizational justice as a result the productive capacities builds. The research work of Robins (2003) proved that job misfit with individuals skills and abilities confront new dimensions. Organizational justice based approach found to establish learning and opportunistic environment for all to learn and develop themselves.
Therefore the applications of the organizational justice are important and contributive at workplace. The research work of (Arif Hassan, 2002) documented important facts about the organizational justice in words that organizational justices improve retention of employees, commitment and satisfaction. Therefore it is planned to acquire long lasting and committed workforce it is required to bring into application organizational justice. Different research studies work about organizational justice proved that organizational justice are contributive towards employees retention in form of staying for longer period with reason that they find themselves on justified position. The other effective outcomes associated with organizational justice are the job satisfaction, employees commitment. Therefore to improve the productive capabilities of workforce it strongly suggested implementing the applicable role of the organization justice (Cameron & Sewell, 2003).
The research findings of Fletcher, (2001) found that performances are found significance influencer for the distinctive outcome of the organization objectives. Organizational justices are evaluating the overall performance of the department and all individuals on the basis of merit and justice. The procedures promote to secure individuals rights and develop HR satisfaction on the basis of merit. The final outcomes on the basis these approaches are found employees centered in case of contributive and aligned with organizational practices. According to Erdogan (2002) proved the relationship between distributive and procedural justices with the organizational justices and empirical results proved the association between these variables are positive and influential. Employees are found satisfying with the procedural and distributive justices therefore the application of the procedural and distributive justices are required to be implemented at workplace.
It is found that procedural justice define the procedure that are based on justice and distributive justice define the distribution of wealth or financial returns, time and duties on basis of justices while these both are proved in the existence of the organizational justice (Erdogan, 2002). According to the research study of Cropanzano et, al (2001) proved that organizational performance improve in the existence of the organizational justice that promote individual rights in secure and affective manners for the uplift the productive capacities.
The research work of Coens et al., (2000) documented that organizational justice is one of the effective and worthy practices for the employees and employers development on merit base system where individuals appreciated to perform on equity basis. It is found that organization with strong organizational justice based practices are found more employee’s retentive and employees are found motivated and connected to the final outcomes. Therefore the role of organizational justice are found effective and contributive (Wiese et al., 1998). According to Pillay (1998) he recorded that employees performance and the parameters to evaluate the contributions of the these performance are effective in differentiation building with condition to implement the active role of the organizational justice.
It is found firms performance evaluation and performance management strategies should be based on merit and standardized approaches to contribute in the effective operations and on the basis of merit. Therefore the findings of the research disclosed the facts that the firms with the applications of these justice based practices promote distributive and procedural justices and as results the required operations are incorporated (Spangenberg&Theron, 2001). According to Longenecker, et, al 2004) the role senior managers and authoritative people are found significant for the implementations of the organization system based on justice where everyone has been given chance to speak for their rights, protect their rights. The justice based practices are affective for the implementation of distributive and procedural justices.
Therefore for longer perspective it is advisory for an organizational to lay down the strong foundation of the organizational justice and promote the strength of HR in form of deserving basis for every opportunity (McFarlin and Sweeney, 1992; Sweeney and McFarlin, 1997).
The research work of Adam (1965) proved that employees in social settings on the basis of equity theory that underline the justice based practices and promote them to work in the organization. The research studies proved that justice in the organization motivate the workforce to work for better outcomes and contribute effectively. The research work of Zachary and Kuzuhara (2005) proved on the basis of evidence that distributive justice and procedural justice are effective in the organization for the organizational performance. Distributive are good in excelling employees productive for the uplift and proactive measure and mutual outcomes.
It is found that employer’s practices with procedural and distributive justices are becoming more associated aligned with the productive strengths towards the betterment and performance development. Therefore the role of the distributive justice is found as realistic and significant (Zachary and Kuzuhara, 2005). The impact of distributive justice and procedural justice promote employees satisfaction that satisfaction of the employees is also found associated organizational justice. Employees are found fair operations and distribution of work, responsibilities and rewards and these are reflecting the organization on justice based operations (Tang and Sarsfield Baldwin 1996).According to Holbrook (2002) examined the role of distributive justice in the targeted organization and proved the role of distributive justice as influential and affective for employees satisfaction building. Therefore distributive justice found worthy in employees motivation in form of employees satisfaction.
According to Dipboye and de Pontbriand, (1981) proved that organizational procedural justice practices in weak an ineffective manner are found to produce irrelevant and non-impressive results towards.
The research work of Fletcher (2001) documented that employees performance, satisfaction and productive capacities promotes in case of workable and effective HR practices relying on justice and merit. Employees are found in frustration and performance results in case ineffective and unjustified working practices. It is found that employees performance are reflecting employees satisfaction and employees satisfaction is reflected by employees practices in relation with distributive and procedural justices. Therefore the more employees practices on merit and equal employment opportunities based the more they are reflecting the organizational justice.
According to Raymond et, al (2006) that distributive justice improve the working conditions and count as self-driven force to improve the desired outcome. Therefore it is important consider the role of organizational justice for better outcomes.The research findings of Roberts (1994) disclosed facts that it is difficult to sustain and ensure employees practices on the ground of justice on standardized situation. There are always some problems faced by the organization, but the good thing is for the organization is that to ensure HR practices on the basis of justice on consistent manners. It is further proved that the employees’ performance appraisal on justice and merit based accelerates employees’ motivation.
The organizations that are laying the principle of justice their practices have the center of quality management and promote the quality improvement programs on the basis of justices. Therefore organizations with right applications of the quality are associated positively with the help of justice (Stevenson 2005). Organizational practices on the basis of justice are comprises of three things organizational justice itself, distributive justice and procedural justice and the relation of these three things found positive and contributive with organizational productivity, quality enhancement and employees satisfaction (Colquitt, 2001). It is found that in case of distributive justices the employees are found to be with effective HR operation in form of satisfied workforce and motivated towards the desired tasks.
Therefore the HR satisfaction is directly and indirectly associated the organizational practices (Spangenberg et al., (2001). The research studies found the applications of distributive justice positively in relation with employee’s pay satisfaction, job satisfaction and organizational commitment(Cohen, R.L., & Greenberg, J. 1982).According to Tata (2000) proved the organizational justice two dimensions these distributive and procedural justice and relationship of these two types of dimensions positive with the employees satisfaction where the application of these dimensions were missing these were showing less motivated and satisfied staff. According to the research work of Poon (2004) that there is no clear way exist to define effectively the application of distributive justice towards the satisfaction of the employees, but in reality justice in organizations promote satisfaction. It is found by.
The impact distributive justice promotes justified decisions that are in favor of mutual interests of all with such type of working policies the organizational outcomes promotes. There it is important to implement the positive role of distributive justice (Chughtai, A.A., &Zafar, S. 2006). Distributive justice stimulates the workforce for better perspective and aligns their strengths with the organizational required tasks to be performed. As an outcome it promotes the employees satisfaction and retention at workplace. It is further examined that distributive justice it addresses employees’ issues that are confronted by irrelevant operations (Lynn,M.F. and M.J. Martin, 1989). According to Folger, R., &Cropanzano, R. 1998)recorded the role of distributive and procedural justices associative towards employee’s motivation to stay in the organization and remain committed at the workplace. Therefore the impact of studied distributive and procedural justices is found relative to the employee’s satisfaction and working performance.
The research work of Beitz, Charles. 2000proved that distributive and procedural justices are promoting equity based working system and employees are willing to stay in organizations. A distributive justice is also recorded in negative correlation with turnover intention and promotes employees satisfaction.
According Hong and Kaur (2008) procedural justice define the working practices based on fairness, equity and logical justifications. The workforces are given what they deserve and equal chances of opportunities areassigning to all. Therefore the operations based on procedural justice promote equity based and fair activities and employees are monitored with same standards. The returns associated with such procedures are worthy and additive to the overall organization outcomes. According to Kim.W.Get, al (2005) proved the correlation between employees perception about procedural justice and employees motivation.
It is found in positive correlation with employees’ satisfaction. The employee’s are feeling empowered and connected to authorities all the process and activities are examined from time to time for accountability perspective. Huffman and Cain (2001) that the employees’ satisfaction effect by the equity and fair based approaches in the procedures in the employees’ assessments programs, rewards management, career development and other important decisions. According to Krehbiel and Cropanzano (2000) documented that procedural justice that brings in applications the fairness of the process towards the operations of the organizations to align different practices on the basis of justices. Therefore the organizational practices that are initiated on these grounds are in reality effective and worthy for the employees. It is found by Schminke et, al (2000) that organization that’s practices are based distributive and procedural justices are required to bring into applications the six identified rules the consistency of the procedure on standards, impersonal practices, accuracy, inclination for corrective measures, integration of interest and acceptance of ethics.
The research work of Millimanet, al (2003)examined the relationship between procedural justice and employees’ satisfaction. It is found that procedural justice are promoting the outcomes of the organizations in form of developing strong foundations of the organizations with credibility and standardized operations. The research study proved that fairness of the procedure stimulates cooperation that integrates the human resources towards common goals and as a results the employee’s satisfaction found in application at the workplace (Van Parijs 2002). According to Rawls (1999) proved the employees’ are found with weak evaluation programs and unsatisfactory working practices in situation where the application of the procedural justices are found missing. It is found by David Landes’s (1998) that the division of resources for the allocation of the desired objectives and application of procedures to perform on certain tasks are influenced by the procedural justices that as results motivate the workforce. It is the role of the HR experts and executive to evaluate the employee’s positions regularly for the implementation of the right HR practices that show justice and realistic approaches. The logical reason behind this situation is to implement right justice based practices for the right people (Nagel 2005).
Such outcomes are contributing positively in relation with employee’s satisfaction. The role of procedural justice is found affective for the satisfaction and employees retention. The research work of HSIU-Yen (2009) conducted a research study on 418 research and development professionals in Taiwan. The research study proved that relationship between procedural justice and employees satisfactions. It is found that organizations are required to support justice based working practices and retain them for the development, satisfaction and motivation of the workforce. According to Michael Walzer (1995) that procedural justice explicitly expressed in form the daily operation towards daily tasks. When these operations are planned to perform different tasks for targeted results the organizations are found on the desired track and so as the HR. The individual rights are secured and found safe in existence of the justice system in the organizations.
The applications of these practices towards the employee’s satisfaction and performance are very important, due to the provision of the opportunity to all who are productive and committed with their work.The research work of Brockner and Wiesenfeld, (2005) found the applications of organizational justice favorable for the desired outcomes of the organization in association with employees support. Workers are in such types of organizations are finding themselves energetic and devoted with reason they are aware about the operations and their contribution and in case something go wrong they will be accountable and compensated. The research work of Van den Bos, Vermunt and Wilke, (1997) recorded quantitative outcomes about organizational justice in form of distributive justice and procedural justice. It is recorded that distributive and procedural justices are valuable for organizations and employees satisfaction.